9. Suitable re-entry zone
Just like the interventional collateral, a “suitable re-entry zone” will vary dependent on operator experience. Important factors that favour successful re-entry with stingray include: disease free re-entry zone, lack of subintimal space expansion by prior wire manipulation, close proximity of the antegrade wire to the lúmen surface at re-entry zone, and to a lesser degree the larger true lúmen size of re-entry vessel. Presence of subinitmal space expansion, bifurcation at distal cap, diffuse disease of re-entry zone all predict failure.